current position:Home>Block chain application (decentralized) is what kind of?

Block chain application (decentralized) is what kind of?

2022-08-06 12:24:51Wisdom Haohai

EOS The technical white paper gives the application of the six conditions(如下所示),而 EOS The software design is designed corresponding to these conditions.In this section we will focus on EOS One of the three special design for the application of:用户免费、账户体系、存储.

Application block chain of six conditions:

  1. Support millions of level users,You need to be able to handle tens of millions of active users block chain technology.
  2. 使用免费,Application developers need to have the flexibility,To provide users with free service;The user does not have to in order to use the platform or benefit from the platform service and pay.
  3. Easy to upgrade and troubleshooting,Block chain platform must provide support to upgrade the software and intelligent contract.
  4. 延迟低,Feedback is the basis of a good user experience in a timely manner.
  5. Serial performance,Because some applications must sequentially ordered,Can't use parallel algorithm to realize.Block chain need to provide powerful support serial performance.
  6. 并行性能,Large applications need to be moreCPUAnd computer allocation between workload.

Block chain to what extent are applied to decentralized

类似于互联网,All look forward to make block chain useful on application,Usually people also called decentralized application(DAPP).在讨论 EOS Specially designed for the application do before,We first discuss block chain or so-called decentralized application architecture,This is block chain landing at the forefront of application,They are still in the exploration.

For application prospect,在《区块链革命》一书中,唐·That's Scott was looking:“We are into a new era of the digital revolution,People can be distributed software programming and share.As the chain block agreement itself is distributed as,A distributed application or DAPP(去中心化应用程序)Will be in a lot of running on your computer,Rather than on a single server to run.”

经过 20 多年的发展,We are already familiar with information on the Internet website or mobile application is what kind of,那么,Application and chain blocks related decentralized what?

To understand the chain block or decentralized application,We will from the familiar.

Now recognized development prospect is,The Internet will from the value of the chain of information across the Internet based on block the Internet.Information website is the Internet application and mobile App.When application prospect,A lot of people naturally think that,In the chain of chain native will appear the block or decentralized application.

This form of structure is as shown in figure 1 a) 所示:网站、移动 App Are the corresponding information on the Internet,The so-called block chain application/Decentralized application corresponds to the block chain.Early application does show that state,Such as block browser、Each block chain his wallet, etc.Each block chain are distributed books and go to center network,They provide the data and function.Early applications interact with the blocks chain.

但我们很快发现,When ordinary users to use the block chain,Applications may become similar to figure 1 b) 的样子:Web sites and mobile App One of the data and functionality to communicate with block chain“区块链应用”,And ordinary users to see actually or website and mobile app.我们甚至可以说,对于普通用户来说,Probably don't have any block chain or decentralized application,只有应用.


图1:区块链应用

 

If separate see a block chain application,Situation may figure 2 所示.

  • The block chain is distributed books and go to center network,It provides a series of data associated with the value and function.
  • Multiple applications access block chain network.在这些应用中,Some may be ordinary users can use,是网站/移动 App Block chain applications with a combination of;Some may be pure block chain application.


图2:The possibility of the application block chain

Some applications may access multiple block chain,Such as the application of common exchange right now、Wallet access multiple block chain.

基于 Steem 区块链的 Steemit The blog application is one of the few ordinary users can use the application.在 Steem 区块链上,The application architecture is that show are more clear:

  • Steem Block value chain store(STEEM 币、SP、SBD Three types of access card),And carried out in accordance with the content contribution value of distribution.
  • Based on the block chain has more than one application:普通用户可用的 Steemit 博客平台、视频平台 DTube 等;Regular application such as block chain browser steemd.com 网站.Its community is active,There are other many applications.

Steem The main developers also EOS The main developers Daniel·Larry mo(BM),EOS 是将 Steem Block chain generalizing,And did a lot of improvement.比如,对比 Steem 与 EOS 我们可以看到,EOS No longer use the content in this block chain is not reasonable design,But it continues to expand the Steem Some accounts and permissions in the system.

The currency system completed in block to value chain and the concept of value transfer validation,而 Steem 区块链和 Steemit Blogging platform, the application of the concept of the project may be completed early block chain validation.现在,EOS Will carry forward its before a lot of design.

在《去中心化应用》一书中,Developers Silas jie·Laval decentralization degree on the application of the decentralized had a discussion about.他认为,Block chain is likely to be completed in four past centralized decentralization:

  • The data decentralization(decentralized data)
  • Wealth decentralized(decentralized wealth)
  • Will identity decentralized(decentralized identity)
  • Calculates the decentralized(decentralized computing)

我认为,Block chain is the core functions of decentralized value representation and value transfer,Above are respectively corresponding to the classification of wealth and calculated.When trying to build an,We should focus on both the above.As well as other major block chain,EOS In these two aspects to do very well.It also attempts to significantly improve block chain itself at the heart of the performance,Second transaction processing(TPS).

或许同样重要的是,与其他区块链相比,EOS For the development of a normal user applications available,Provides more functionality and features.接下来我们讨论 EOS For the application of three things:用户免费、Accounts and permissions system、存储系统.

用户免费

When talking about the conditions needed for the application,EOS The white paper wrote:“The user does not have to in order to use the platform or benefit from the platform service and pay.”

The user is free EOS 与比特币、The etheric lane relatively significant difference.在比特币、The etheric lane in the system,Ordinary users if trading transfer operations such as,Need to pay the corresponding transaction fee.而 EOS To bear the costs of the stress transfer to the application provider.

The user is free and EOS Closely related to the design of the economy.Use a block chain applications usually require three resources,These three resources are provided by the maintenance to the center network computer,对 EOS 来说,These three resources is the block producers(BP)提供的.These three resources are:

  • 带宽资源:The bandwidth and the log store(磁盘)(Bandwidth and Log Storage(Disk)).
  • 计算资源:Backlog of calculation and calculation(CPU)(Computation and Computational Backlog(CPU)).
  • 状态资源:状态存储(RAM)(State Storage(RAM)).

这三种资源(带宽资源、Computing resources and state resources)The corresponding is a computer network of three kind of ability.For who is familiar with the computer,Bandwidth resources and computing resources are easy to understand,And state resources is a special term block chain.正如之前讨论的,Block chain book is stored in the state,Such as trading books、账户余额等,According to its name abbreviations for RAM,It about the nature of memory.

EOS Also specifically illustrate,What should be deposited in the state,What should not be deposited in the state.例如,A block chain application logic does not need to read the content of the blog posts and comments,So they should not be stored in a state of block chain.但是,Blog posts or comments if there is a、The vote, as well as other properties,Need to exist state of block chain.

特别地,BM Design and development of the content before dedicated block chain Steem,在 Steem 中,Blog posts and comments of text is stored in the chain of the block(区块链账本)中的.BM In practice, may realize,The correct behavior should be only in the chain of blocks books stored in trade related information.

简单地说,Block chain is used for trading,Blocks in the state of the chain is trading books,那么,Trade related information should be deposited in the trading books,Has nothing to do with the exchange of information should not be deposited in the trading books.

EOS Block chain mechanism of these three resources consumption is such a:区块生产者(BP)Release of the available bandwidth(bandwidth)、计算(computation)和状态(state)的容量.

EOSIO A percentage of available resources cost system allows each account,This is according to the account to hold the pass card deposit“Three days of the mortgage contract”的数量决定的.

例如,假设有一个基于 EOS 的应用,If an account have always pass card 1%,So the account can use 1% The state of the storage capacity.

因此,About how to do it for the user free,EOS The key is the following two points to the design of.

第一,Users don't need to pay directly to block chain,And by the application to deal with.

In the etheric fang block chain network,I'm going to the etheric currency or other based on ERC20 Standard through the transfer to others,I as the originator of the deal,The need to set a transaction fee(gas),Direct payments to block chain network,So the etheric lane network can handle this transaction.

EOS The design of logic is based on the assumption:“No site visitors for the maintenance of server will be asked to pay for small.因此,Decentralized applications should not be forced to block its customers to use the block chain chain direct fee.”

EOS 虽然以“The receiver to pay”As part of a discussion subheadings,But the thinking of it is,What kind of way is determined by the application to take.Usually for application can facilitate users to use,It is the basic logic should be,Apply on the cost,The end user to use block chain network is free.

第二,Applying transaction cost and the value of separate.

In the etheric fang block chain network,We pay the transaction fee paid is the etheric c,As the etheric currency prices rise and fall,Transaction costs as the price fluctuation through the.而 EOS 的设计逻辑是:“Applying transaction cost and the value of separate.”

EOS The practice of block chain network is,An application with the bandwidth of the、计算、State resources such as,Is related to its holdings of access card number,But because do not need to consume,So to some extent, can be considered as nothing to do with the value or price of the pass card.

If we as developers,Do not hold enough access card,则 EOS Block chain network also provides a rent mechanism,这个机制是“The resource ability go out”(delegating capacity):Pass card holder may not need an immediate consumption all or part of the available bandwidth resources,They can choose to entrust or unused bandwidth leasing to others.

But note this sentence:“Bandwidth and computation can be licensed to others,But for the application status of storage need developers hold access card,Until state deleted.If the state of the program never delete,Then this part through the exit flow.”

根据 EOSIO 文档,In this case, the state can think is occupied by an application block chain network RAM 存储空间.原文为:Storage of application state will require an application developer to hold tokens until that state is deleted.If state is never deleted,then the tokens are effectively removed from circulation.
Contrast the etheric fang and EOS 我们可以看到,In the etheric fang trading,Individual users have to pay transaction fee,而在 EOS 中进行交易,Is application providers need to bear the cost,Now the main cost is with RAM Storage space related.

Accounts and permissions system

EOS 与比特币、One big difference is the etheric fang,It allows the user to create a no more than 12 A long user name,This user name is representative of our account.

以太坊的账户

The currency block chain concept of no account,The currency only address;The etheric lane design account,但远没有 EOS So complete account permissions related functions.为了便于理解,We see from the first COINS into the etheric fang“From the address to the account”,再看 EOS Account of the design.

The currency is of no account,All the currency trading is exchange between address.We held by the currency is the sum total of his own COINS in the address,In the currency system is that there is no account、To balance this stuff.

The etheric fang introduced the concept of account:以太坊账户.Each account includes four information:一个随机数、账户的余额、合约代码(如果有的话)、存储(通常为空).

The etheric fang includes two types of accounts:

  • External controlled by the private key account.
  • Contract control account.

对比特币来说,It is only by external private key control address.On the outside of the etheric fang account no code,It can create and sign a deal,Sending a message is,And a contract account after receiving the message can perform the corresponding code and storage.这里的“合约”Code is equivalent to exist in the etheric lane in the execution environment“自治代理”,It has its own etheric fang account,It after I receive my trading information is equivalent to a stabbed the,And then automatically performs a piece of code.

和比特币一样,以太坊的区块中存储的也是交易,它包括的字段主要有:接受者(接受的账户)、发送者的签名、发送者发给接受者的以太币金额等.

EOS 的账户

EOS The account system is much more complicated,It is more like a bank account system or we in the Internet application(比如谷歌、微信等)The account system.

下面来看看 EOS Composition of account system.

一个 EOS Account system to send the action(action)To another account,And every account can set a processor(handler)To automatically handle sent to his own actions.The combination of movement and processor,就是 EOS 的智能合约(见图3).

Each account has its own internal database(private database),This account within the internal database processor can access only himself.


图3:EOSAccount the interaction of the:Action with processor

EOS The system provides a standard role-based permission system(role based permission management),这使得所有基于 EOS To develop the application of all can use the account system and power system,And to re-invent the wheel.

在 BM 之前开发的 Steem 区块链中,Role-based permission system have been introduced to block in the chain,他在 Steem Hard-coded in the three types of user permissions:owner、active、posting.

EOS In the discussion, the white paper Steem 时说:“posting Permissions can only perform social behaviors such as voting and release,而 active Permissions in addition to change the owner,Also can do any other things.owner Permissions for cold storage,It can do all things.”

EOS To further improve the,The role-based permission system has carried on the generalized,“Allow each account holders to define your own authority hierarchy and group action”.To do this to the application developers more freedom.

在 EOS Account access system has two default permissions set:The highest level of the default permissions set is owner,The second default permissions set is active,It can be made in addition to change the owner of all the things.Other permissions set can be by the active 派生出来,These permissions defined set of users can be.比如,I've developed a blog application,I can define a publish Permissions set out(见图4).


图4:EOSA permissions system example of white paper

 

存储系统

我们都已经知道,Only with trade related information should be stored in the chain of the block,那么,For the application of decentralized,Other data should be stored in where?

Most of the foundation and chain didn't solve the problem of the surrounding,And focused on the core tasks of block chain——交易.但为了让 EOS Can be better used for developing application,EOS 在 2017 年 9 月就发布了 EOS Storage of independence, the white paper,Explains it in terms of storage development idea.

In discussing the interstellar file system(IPFS)、分布式存储项目(Filecoin、Maidsafe、Siacoin、Storj),As well as the existing centralized storage(如DropBox、GoogleDriver、苹果的iCloud)等后,It puts forward with your access card and IPFS 结合,Form a for EOS Application development of storage.

有了基于 IPFS After the file storage system,在 2017 年 12 月 12 日,EOS Team published articles of advice given EOS 应用开发架构(见图5).从图中可以看到,In the frame of the it recommends the application development of,EOS Applications are being suggested storage based on IPFS 的 EOS 存储中的(即图中的 IPFS File Storage).到目前为止,EOS In terms of storage also only provides an idea,There is a certain distance away from the real.

总的来说,Block chain transferring value representation and value the two related with the value of the core functions of decentralized,Chains can be through the interface and the block chain interactive data(通证)和计算(通证交易).EOS As the most popular new block chain system,它的特色在于,In the two core functions,It provides the application development of various kinds of convenience,May promote the emergence of more applications.


图5:EOS应用开发框架(2017年12月)

The seventh chain blocks、The eighth definitions as shown in figure6所示.


图6:The definition of block chain of seven、之八

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author[Wisdom Haohai],Please bring the original link to reprint, thank you.
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