原文:https://pensivepragmatism.substack.com/p/on-crypto-bridges

作者:Marco Manoppo

It is very difficult to move crypto assets in a blockchain network. As the crypto asset and blockchain industry matures,The world will undoubtedly become multi-chain,Various blockchain networks optimized for specific needs and use cases.然而,It also increases the risk that asset owners take when moving assets across different networks.仅在过去的一年里,Various encryption bridges have been stolen for more than 10 亿美元——最近,We saw another one calledNomadThe bridge was stolen2亿美元.

What is unique about this hack is that it does not require deep technical knowledge,This led to the event being the first decentralized crowd robbery,Almost anyone who understands how blockchain transactions work can participate in the attack. Just copy-paste the original attacker's transaction call data,瞧!

在这一点上,It seems that almost all existing encryption bridges are attacked in one way or another.Due to the rescue,some people survived,while others never really returned to their former glory.I don't pretend to be a mysterious super programmer or cyber security expert,And there are people smarter than me who can explain the technical intricacies of crypto bridges——I'm just here on how bridges work、它们的重要性、Disadvantages express opinions,and present my thoughts on future dynamics as crypto assets mature.I'm just a researchers and strategist.

Here are the quick points:

  • By encrypting lock the bridge TVL 总额超过 200 亿美元.
  • 在过去的一年中,超过 18 亿美元在 5 stolen on an encryption bridge.
  • Vitalik Vision for a multi-chain future rather than a cross-chain future is likely to be true.
  • The bailout of the Crypto Bridge sets a bad precedent for the industry.
  • Institutional Investors Likely to Favor Trusted Over Trustless Crypto Bridges.

How bridges work?

从字面上看,like the word itself,between multiple blockchain networks“桥接”加密资产.这一趋势始于2020年初,At that time severalL1Ecosystems are growing and competing for market share,Invite people to come to their turf and experiment with what they have to offer;尽管像WBTCThis already exists.

These bridges usually work by anchoring tokens in smart contracts to issue them on another chain,At the same time ensure that the user the anchor tokens can always redemption and native assets one-on-one.我们来看一个具体的例子.

For one of the most popular bridge assetsWBTC而言,The nature of bridges is centralized and hosted.The user from currency block in the chain BTC,and received on the Ethereum blockchain ERC-20 代币 WBTC.BitGo 是 WBTC 的托管人,并且需要通过 BitGo 进行 KYC process to mint and redeem WBTC.此外,There is also a set of partners holding all deposited and minted BTC the multi-signature key of.在这种情况下,The user can verify chain 1:1 支持.

Classification Bridge

一般来说,The bridge can be divided into trusted to trust bridge and bridge.

The former means that the bridge relies on a centralized entity to operate,如上面的 WBTC 示例所示.Users need to trust the security and integrity of these centralized custodians,To ensure that their bridge assets have sufficient liquidity for users who want to redeem their native tokens.在这种情况下,The risk is that centralized entities become rogue and incompetent security management.

The latter means that the bridge relies on smart contracts.Users need to trust the security of the underlying blockchain and the smart contracts written on it to enable the functionality of the bridge.在这种情况下,Risk is bad coding、Social engineering or new attack vectors that were previously overlooked.

此外,There is also a bridge to trust,它结合了 AMM,Essentially creating a more seamless cross-chain exchange experience.compared to traditional bridge models,This model is usually more efficient.但是,This is still a trustless model,and has the same inherent smart contract risks described above.

The way it works is that a new one is created on all desired target chains ERC20 代币合约,As anchor the scrip.When users bridge their tokens from the source chain to any destination chain,The original token is locked in Synapse in the bridge smart contract.然后 Synapse The protocol transmits a cross-chain message,Instruct the target chain to mint target chain tokens.This newly minted token is associated withgasDropped in the chain of distribution to the target users with wallet address.

History of being attacked

for bad guys,Crypto bridge resembles a bee's flower.As the world becomes more multi-chain and the total market capitalization of crypto assets(以及 DeFi TVL )的增加,These bridges will become increasingly profitable.截至 2022 年 8 月 2 日,超过 200 $100 million in funds locked in multiple bridges.

you will believe you20-30year-old founder and a10Can Teams of People Fight Nationwide Hackers??North Korea is already behind the latest high-profile operation.

思想学派

Vitalik has argued,未来将是多链的,but not cross-chain.he basically thinks,Decentralized applications across different chains create complex interdependencies across multiple chains,So only on a chain 51% Attacks can have serious contagion effects,thereby threatening the entire economic ecosystem.

不仅是安全风险,Token economics also need to decide how to handle the existence of tokens in different chains.There will be a supply and demand problem,to ensure that the original token economics framework is respected,Ensure that the inflation rate of the token is not materially affected by the cross-chain implementation.对于稳定币,This is a completely different way.

Big man saves the city

具有讽刺意味的是,“救助”The term may be mainstream media for those who screw things up、需要政府(或沃伦·巴菲特)One of the most negative descriptions of a Wall Street firm with some kind of savings.The term is synonymous with corruption and mismanagement on Wall Street.Once again, the crypto industry is repeating at lightning speedTradFi的错误.

  1. Wormhole 3.2 亿美元的黑客攻击 - Jump Trading(Big Daddy)
  2. Ronin (Axie) 6.24 亿美元的黑客攻击 - Binance、Animoca、a16z、Accel、Paradigm、Dialectic (Big Daddies)
  3. Harmony Bridge 1 billion dollar hack - 用 ONE Tokens to compensate victims(Big Daddy = 社区)
  4. Poly Network 6.11 亿美元的黑客攻击 - Hackers return funds

在上述四种情况中,The most positive result isPoly 网络,Because hackers eventually returned close to the original stole all the money.但是,If we either need bailout,Either rely on the sincerity of hackers,Either go the law enforcement route and turn to the authorities,那我们在这里做什么?

那么,We are not better through CEX Or trusted bridge“桥接”资产吗?

These entities will eventually be more regulated,have auditable reserves and(希望)更好的服务.

当然,你可以争辩说,CEX and trusted bridges can block you from accessing their services at any time,especially when they come under more pressure from regulators. 虽然这是 100% 的有效,But trustless bridges may be forced to do something similar,尽管规模要小得多,例如阻止 IP 地址或标记来自黑名单钱包的交易.归根结底,When the crypto market size reaches 10 亿用户时,这些 dApp 的 99% of consumers don't really care. 他们只想以最快、最安全、The most trusted way to transfer assets.

当 USDC/USDT Find a way to do cross-chain swaps G-20 When the country integrates legal currency import and export,it's almost over.Long live stablecoins!

重新发明轮子

Cryptographic design in its current form is reinventing the wheel,instead of breaking it.

我们的目标是建立一个去中心化的金融生态系统,But when a breach occurs,We will most likely need to rely on the authorities to get the funds back.如果是这样,So why don't we just trust reputable CEX 呢?是的,They may walk in the field of adopting the new chain more slowly,but if the end result is the same,并且随着 CEX 受到监管,它很可能更安全,So doesn't that defeat the original purpose??

我预测,with trillions of dollars“真正”Institutions will favor CEX and trusted bridge,rather than a bridge to trust.因此,Though there is a bridge to trust the market,But these activities will be largely driven by willing L1 Speculator push for on-chain farming.

这些动态,再加上 Vitalik Views on the future of multi-chain,may indicate that we need to rethink the design of these bridges、Philosophy and Use Cases.

I used to work with a very smart engineers,He has decades of experience building software for financial infrastructure.他是一个聪明的人,对加密货币持怀疑态度,And cryptocurrency is something the industry really needs more;他曾经说过,Cryptocurrencies are really just repeating exponentially TradFi 所做的一切.Looks like he's right again.