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a16z: Why do NFT creators choose cc0?

2022-08-05 12:28:42Heart of the Metaverse

Thousands of innovative products are launched every year 1 月 1 Automatically imported into the public domain,这也意味着在「Public Domain Day」,The copyright holder or creator has waived any rights to the artwork including reproduction、Ownership including adaptation or publication,Free for everyone.电影、诗歌、音乐、书籍,Even the source code fully applies this guideline,Creative protection of works in the public domain usually lasts until after the author's death. 70 年.Public domain copyright disclosure opens up new worlds for uncreative works.上半年,大约有 40 万张 1923 Years ago, and the first version of a well-known Disney employee who has not put on red short sleeves《小熊维尼》Comics are put into the public domain,And the copyright is made public.

作者 A.A.Milne Impossible to think,生于 1926 pooh and her friends,Endowed by the community's creatives 2022 The colors and expressions of the year.Even in the pen of some creators,Bear holding a jar of honey,has become a horror movie《小熊维尼:Tears of blood and honey》的主角,And starring Pooh and Piglet as villains.Compared to many classics IP Continue the original creative style,Experimental Refactoring May Be Technological IP Add more value,Allow the public to create second-generation technologies based on existing technologies,It is the core of the open source movement.安卓、Linux and what makes other successful open source software projects so competitive,A large part of the reason is that they have hugs「无许可创新」的魄力.

加密系统,尤其是 NFT 社区,Success in attracting public development,Also due to its interest in open source and「remix 文化」generally recognized.Grab the product memory point via IP 建立品牌、Community and content strategies vary in NFT Projects vary widely.Some projects maintain a more or less standard IP protection system;Other items only give NFT The owner is relevant IP the right to innovate;Some projects choose to take off directly,Complete cancellation of copyright and other IP 的保护.

By issue with「Creative Commons Zero」即「cc0」Permissions for digital works,Creators can choose not to retain ownership separately, while retaining the right to know.This permission frees everyone from「二创」的法律后果,And you can make peripheral products with confidence and boldness.[特别说明:NFT There is no complete regulation on copyright,Therefore, the so-called copyright and legal、财务、Taxes or investments are irrelevant.本文重点在于 cc0,NFT 的版权漏洞,and the creators' ability to assert the owner's rights]cc0 在 NFT wide application in the field,最早开始于 2021 年夏天的 Nouns 项目.

A Common Place, Anonymice, Blitmap, Chain Runners, Cryptoadz, CryptoTeddies, Goblintown, Gradis, Loot, mfers, Mirakai, Shields, and Terrarium Club and other projects to follow up quickly,And on its basis, more and more high-quality new derivatives have been generated.同时,Well-known crypto artist X_COPY,its iconic 1-of-1 NFT 艺术品「Right-click and Save As Guy」置于 cc0 under license conditions,After just one month after sale,There are a lot of derivatives.

「Right-click Save As Guy」 by XCOPY ( 左 ) / XCOPY Derivatives of the original ( 右 )

周一,X_COPY Directly did the big vote,announce intention「all-in」,将 cc0 Apply to all artwork.The artist added:「We haven't really seen one cc0 的夏天,but i believe it's coming......」 —— perhaps implying that a cc0 potential growth period,类似于 2020 has attracted countless decentralized followers 「DeFi 之夏」.

Why so many NFT The creator is on the way「无版权」的道路?One reason can be summed up simply as「It's all about culture」,That is to promote the development of native projects,to bring about a more vibrant and engaged community.This makes a lot of sense with the encrypted background bonus,开放共享,Find and build community,Many encryption lovers part of the core concepts.A creative work lives or dies if it is culturally relevant.

虽然 NFT Natural ability to prove ownership of all digital projects,so that the author does not need to consider licensing issues,而 cc0 by giving everyone the unimpeded right to re-create,Extend the original「记忆曲线」——When new derivatives continue to emerge and spread,People's attention will naturally flow to the original,Increase its visibility across the crypto world,to inspire more re-creations,产生飞轮效应——Each derivative adds value to the original,Similar to platform network effects,That is, the addition of users makes the platform more valuable to users.换言之,cc0 Make it easier for creatives「Capture the memory of the product」.

不过 cc0 The application across the digital realm is just beginning——Real-world physical products are also being produced cc0NFT Derivatives of assets.NounsDAO NFT iconic square glasses on(「one per day, forever」)已经被 Nouns Vision The project made luxury sunglasses that you can actually wear.Blitmap The pixel art has completely freely appeared on shoes, clothes and hats from different production companies.

This is obviously different from the traditional intellectual property model,single owner to creation、Licensing and production of powerful voice to form bright contrast.带有 Blitmap The logo hat actually has multiple cc0 级别:底层 cc0 实体「blitcap」actually with a second layer cc0 Chain Runner Derivatives of series features,And it's also the first layer cc0 Blitcap 标志「原件」的产品.This sign actually is Biltmap 的 token 84 作品,It is also a few of the series that often serve as inspiration-driven creations.「原件」之一(Other works are「Dom Rose」, token #1,等等).

Two creators came in succession「致敬经典」,也反映出 Blitmap 作为 cc0 领导者,It was also the first to announce its entry into the public domain. NFT One of the main projects,Huge influence in the entire crypto world.Such derivatives for creative brand creators and derivatives are a win-win situation,especially for derivatives makers.Derivatives from the original project borrow some brand awareness,When derivatives are presented to the public as stand-alone products,People will take a new interest in the original project.such as people on the street or in an advertising space seeing someone wearing Nouns 眼镜,Want to buy a pair of your own glasses is an angle,To buy the original NounsDAO NFT or other related derivatives of interest may also exist. [事实上,The second author of this article is via Chain Runners 第一次发现 Blitmap 的,虽然 Blits far beyond his purchasing power,But he ended up buying a few 「Flipmap」的衍生品.]

Physical Blitmap Logo Hat (1), Chain Runners #780 ft. Blitmap Hat trait (2) and the Blitmap Original 「Logo #87」 (3)

Open source embraces co-authoring thanks to building on smart contract technology,NFT Part of its power comes from the inherent composability of technology.

Many smart contracts are developed with the「积木」,i.e. by combining and stacking,Enable richer applications.正如「货币乐高」Used to describe decentralized finance(「DeFi」)A combination of smart contracts,它们相互连接,To form a new financial cases.( 例如,Yield Aggregator Yearn 与 MakerDAO 的稳定币 $DAI and exchange liquidity providers Curve 等,The contract can only by calling their intelligence public functions to interact)

From the same composability perspective,NFT and its underlying smart contracts can be used as a basic condition for culture and creativity to have the ability to reorganize and splicing.Cc0 It is the guarantee that the above behavior can be successfully realized under the permission of the original author.,使得 NFT Enthusiasts get an explicit mandate from the community,So that new value layers can be built anytime, anywhere.

来自 HyperLoot 的游戏概念,是一个 Loot Derivatives of the project,显示多个 cc0 Projects as controllable characters in fictional games have a more profound impact on「开源」,cc0 甚至可以和 Linux The rise of standing in a horizontal line.

在那个 web2.0 Still a new concept year,Microsoft with its closed-source operating system Windows Controls most of the operating system market.但 Linux(and its creator Linus Torvalds)Advocating the spirit of community first,Open source for everyone to use、修改,No restrictions on dissemination.Linux The open source direct let「Developers around the world unite」为 Linux Created include web server,数据库,Connect everything in the system.

Linux The value proposition of the system is enhanced by the worldwide open source software in the system,Ultimately leading to explosive growth and further innovation across the industry.根据市场分析机构 Truelist 的数据,今天 Linux 在前 100 Ten thousand units of the network server 96.3% 以上,accounted for in smartphones 85%.随着 cc0 Licensing begins to be granted in a similar manner NFT Community Builder Power,One can imagine a long-term innovation trajectory.根据 NounsDAO 联合创始人 punk4156 的「logic-lego」构想,即将 cc0 与 NFT 结合起来,「Transforming an adversarial game into a cooperative one」.

There are several key points to this idea:首先,Since the decentralized system from open source to encryption is about trust and coordination between strangers,So fostering cooperation opportunities is the key to success; 其次,在 NFT 的世界中,This collaboration strengthens people’s ownership of digital assets,Give them the motivation to continue creating while holding assets,And thereby enhancing the art value of original digital assets,形成一个良性循环.

创造力的「执照」如果 cc0 Project is similar to a single open source「应用程序」或「平台」,NFT 艺术品、Metadata and smart contracts provide 「用户界面」,And the underlying blockchain(如 Ethereum)是「操作系统」.但是,In order for these applications to achieve similar Linux 的潜力,Need to create more supporting infrastructure services,and reach a level that can be called at any time,so that people can make the most of cc0 创造的「混响」机会.

These services are already starting to take shape.例如,「hyperstructure」Zora 协议和 OpenSea 的开源 Seaport Protocols are built for NFT A technical foundation for an open and permissionless market for transactions.近日,A pixel art rendering engine publicly released to the Ethereum blockchain,And has been integrated into OKPC 和 ICE64 等项目中.

Every successful application will be achieved by the blockchain「开袋即食」Standard adds a fire,Is born in growing more and more new application blocks.虽然 web3 Developer growth is at an all-time high and expanding rapidly,But the amount is still accounts for only a small part of the active software developers around the world.Fortunately, as more and more developers enter this field,野心勃勃的 NFT Project may have to find more creative「乐高」,为 cc0 Projects and other projects provide technical cornerstones.

Composability is the key to growth. As these digital assets are built on public standards with interoperable infrastructure as the cornerstone,Putting assets into a variety of different platforms is a breeze for users.Loot Projects are an example of this scalability in practice,It is the earliest show NFTs Decentralized co-creation、One of the pioneering projects in world building and more.

We share this example also because it is clearly aesthetically pleasing「瑕疵」甚至 「不完整」,But it also leaves more room for the imagination and community co-creation of all crypto enthusiasts.此处补充一点关于 Loot 的背景知识: Loot 以一系列 Loot NFT 开始,每个 NFT Only includes a simple black and white text「冒险物品」的清单(如 5726 No. loot bag「Katana, Divine Robe, Great Helm, Wool Sash, Divine Slippers, Chain Gloves, Amulet, Golden Ring」).The loot bags from prime creator Dom Hofmann 免费发布,is a starting point for community building.

Several projects have indeed started to develop from worldview building to world modeling in a short period of time(游戏开发)的所有内容,Creators from all sides are「Lootverse 」Contributed many derivatives.they've made games(Realms & The Crypt);角色(Genesis Project, Hyperloot, and Loot Explorers);Storytelling project(Banners and OpenQuill);even level infrastructure(The Rift).

那么,cc0 and how does composability apply here??

The user controls the fundamental Loot Bags——It's a kind that makes sense in many different games and worldviews「Initial luggage」—— After the user connects the wallet,you can use these core assets anywhere.This feature also enables them to participate in including Genesis Adventure Numerous derivative projects including,Its special characters are quite distinctive in other projects,Basically realizes a decentralized franchise that does not belong to any one entity.

Cc0 When will summer come?

如上文所述,NFT project is developing and building its IP many strategies can be employed.当涉及到 cc0 时,重要的是「现实」二字.The license is not the magic lamp of Aladdin,Can't easily turn any project into a sensation——It's a myth to expect the public domain to suddenly make something unprecedentedly successful.as open source software,cc0 For those potential stocks that can empower the ecosystem NFT 效果最好.

迄今为止,Many of the most successful cc0 Projects are all successful by introducing intellectual property that can be used flexibly in a range of different contexts.Nouns Brands are as intuitive with beer ads as they are with physical glasses;Loot Bags It is the initial prop of the big adventure;Goblintown art style in dwarf、Zombies and Grumpy Owls look and feel Val Kilmer Just as good on the body.人们有理由相信,理想的 cc0 NFT Projects create value-added opportunities for builders,both vertically,通过在原始 cc0 Stack new content and functionality directly on assets(例如,在 Loot Games built on the ecosystem, etc.),and horizontally,By introducing different but related intellectual property,Help spread the original cc0 项目的品牌(如各种 Goblintown 衍生品等).

因为 cc0 NFT Items often receive ongoing royalties from secondary sales,Third-party extensions and derivatives can be cc0 Increased demand for assets as a source of income,so as to surround cc0 NFT The business model of the project can benefit directly from these activities.此外,cc0 Can reduce commercial disputes.Obsession with copyright can lead to some「叛逆」Brands ignore the mandate to force the launch of derivatives,甚至以「绕过」produced in the original way.

正如 cc0 项目 A Common Place 的负责人 Robbie Broome 解释的那样:「by handing over the intellectual property cc0 而不是'保护'它,it avoids a bad repeat of the next step.例如,如果 UrbanOutfitters Want to put my design T 恤上,Instead of hiring someone on their team to design something that looks like it,they can directly use the actual work.」有时,采用 cc0 Can effectively turn competition into cooperation.此外,cc0 Project can from community contribution to the value of core assets and the identity of benefit greatly.Community cohesion and engagement are critical here.

On the basis of the examples already mentioned above.While developers can in principle create adventure games around whatever themes and item concepts they want,but many choose to Loot bag Development reflects that Lootverse community cohesion in.

同时,Blitmap 衍生项目 Flipmap 与原 Blitmap Artists share a portion of their earnings,to acknowledge the centrality of the project in the community,This move can facilitate cc0 A culture of health in the project ecosystem.正如 cc0 Project reviewer NiftyPins 所指出的,「这是一个明智之举,To salute the people for the universe to create foundation.它还为许多 OG Blitmap of artists provided an environment to speak out」.

但是,cc0 Not a solution to which the entire crypto world has fallen for it——例如,Built around an already established brand NFT,May prefer to opt for a more restrictive license,to protect its existing intellectual property and enhance exclusivity.

此外,虽然 cc0 with those owners who will NFT 相关 IP 商业化的策略(如 à la Bored Ape Yacht Club )有相似之处,但关键的区别在于, cc0 The holder has no right to prevent others from using the same IP.the holder is therefore more difficult to cc0 Building a business brand on assets,or grant specific rights to partners,However, the rights introduced are still in the hands of the holder,They can still choose the IP(such as backstory or spinoffs).

Decentralization and open development are core elements of blockchain technology and the broader ethos of cryptocurrency.This makes it very natural for cryptocurrency projects to revolve around cc0 content model building——The model is built on a foundation of creative consensus and several groundbreaking open source pioneers——and may represent the「开源哲学」One of the purest manifestations.Same as the initiator of an open source software project,选择 cc0 的 NFT Creators must decide their role in forming the surrounding ecosystem.一些 cc0 项目的领导者,如 Chain Runners 的创建者,Continue on the original cc0 construction on the property,Actively build an environment,Allow derivative projects to build on it.

相比之下,Dom Hofmann 从 Loot Back out,It's up to the community to take care of it.( 据说,Dom Others are being developed cc0 NFT 项目,as support development Blitmap part of the company).Other creators have opted out entirely,Such as the recent alias sartoshi of people announced their withdrawal from his development cc0 项目 mfers,and quit completely NFT 空间,He released a final version,aptly named「sartoshi 的结束」,Then deleted his Twitter 账户.

mfers The project's smart contracts are now composed of seven mfer Multi-signature wallet control for community members.Regardless of the level of continued involvement of the original author,cc0 Empowerment enables a strong community to co-create in a way that provides value to all members.随着 NFT The space continues to evolve and mature,Hopefully more organized infrastructure and design patterns will support these creatives' efforts.There may also be innovation in the framework around value capture,like open source software.( 例如,We might imagine a「Sleepycat 许可证」的版本,It requires proprietary software products to pay license fees when embedding certain open source components).

As creators continue to advance the space,They develop and experiment with new rights and licensing models gradually emerging in the crypto world,These ideas far exceed the scale of today's applications.但无论如何,cc0 为 NFT The author provides a way to start the project——That is, let these projects explore the infinite possibilities of existence by themselves.

 

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