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How is the cross-chain verification of the blockchain?

2022-08-04 18:02:51Blockchain Interstellar Society

Cross-chain is a very important link in the blockchain ecology. It connects different blockchains into a whole, so that data and information can flow better.

The future development of blockchain must be a state of coexistence of multiple chains. This trend has dropped from Ethereum's market share of nearly 100% at the beginning of last year to about 60% now.It can be seen intuitively that the multi-chain ecosystem is gradually taking shape.This also makes the importance of cross-chain more and more prominent.At present, blockchain cross-chain has formed a relatively mature mechanism to provide assets and information transfer for different blockchains.

Each blockchain has its own protocols, rules, assets, consensus mechanisms, etc., and the content varies from chain to chain.The cross-chain is to let these different contents form a consensus that can exchange value and information flow.Due to the differences between different chains, the cross-chain content also needs to be verified to ensure the security during the cross-chain process.The current mainstream verification methods are divided into three methods, namely external verification, local verification, and native verification.

External Authentication

This is a process that relies on additional external verifiers for verification and signing, and is mainly divided into two modes: single-point and multi-point verification.As the name implies, single-point verification means that only one verifier can be completed, while multi-point verification requires multiple verifications to complete.For security reasons, the current mainstream external verification uses multi-signature and multi-party computation schemes.

Some blockchains also set thresholds for verifiers, requiring verifiers to pledge part of their assets on the chain to verify cross-chain transactions as verification nodes.

External verification has certain security issues, mainly whether the external verifier is trustworthy.Only in June this year, there was a security incident caused by external verification. Hackers stole the private keys of 2 verifiers in Harmony Horizon Bridge, and completed the cross-chain signature through this private key, thus stealing the chain.$100 million worth of assets.

Local Validation

Local verification means that only the two parties involved in the cross-chain signature are involved in the cross-chain signature.This verification method reduces the complex multi-party verification to two-party verification, and also transfers the original trust risk to the external verifier to the cross-chain two parties, reducing the risk of the verifier doing evil.However, this also increases the requirement for trust between two parties across the chain.

Native validation

This method is to use the underlying validator in the target chain and the source chain for verification.The blockchain source chain in the cross-chain process deploys its smart contracts in the target chain, and "transforms" the target chain into a side chain of the source chain.In such a cross-chain bridge, there will be a repeater to transmit the information of the source chain to the target chain, and the native verification node will also verify the correctness of the information when the repeater is working.

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